Please download our Style Guide here.
- Quotation marks – Use single quotes ‘single quotes’, and “double quotes” within single quotes when necessary.
- Spelling – Spelling should conform to the new edition of the Concise Oxford English Dictionary. Note the spelling of the following words, which are the preferred forms:
- Hyphens – In adjectives but not nouns: twentieth-century literature but the twentieth century.
- Italic – Use italic for titles of books, plays, films, long poems, newspapers, journals (but not for articles in journals). The title of an article or short poem should be in single quotation marks.
- picturebook (not picture book or picture-book)
- focuses, focused, focusing (not focusses, etc.)
- sociocultural (no hyphen)
- website (no hyphen)
- internet (capital letter not necessary)
- among, while (not amongst, whilst)
- with regard to (not with regards to)
- first, secondly, or first, second (but not firstly)
- Muslim (not Moslem)
- acknowledgement, judgement, abridgement
- ‘ize’ rather than ‘ise’. Use ‘ize’ endings, e.g. organize, realize, but advertise, advise, comprise, compromise, despise, disguise, enterprise, exercise, improvise, supervise, surmise, surprise, analyse etc. Please check in the dictionary if necessary.
- Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently throughout the paper, even those considered common in English language teaching.
- ‘for example’ should be used in the text and ‘e.g.’ in lists of tables/figures.
- ‘per cent’ as two words and % in tables/figures.
- Full stops should be used after abbreviations (p., Ch.) but not after contractions or in acronyms: Dr, St, Mr, BBC, UNESCO, UK, USA.
- Write in full numbers under 10. Use numerals for measurements, percentages and ages e.g. 24 per cent; 10 years old.
- Insert a comma for thousands and tens of thousands, e.g. 1,000 and 10,000.
- He / she – Avoid the use of ‘he’ (when he or she is meant) wherever possible, either through the use of ‘they’ or by repeating the noun.
- Notes – Restrict notes to explanatory statements that develop an idea or expand a quotation, where to do so in the text would disturb the balance. Place notes at the end of your chapter. Do not use footnotes. Note numbers should appear as superscript numbers in the text and be numbered sequentially. Notes should always be 1 ½ spaced and the same point size (12pt) as the main text.
- Figures and Photographs
- All illustrations and images should be submitted correctly PLACED WITHIN THE TEXT. It is not necessary to send pictures separately. Always refer to the image you are using in your text, e.g. (see Figure 3).
- Please ensure that each image has a caption and each illustration is clearly marked as Figure 1, Figure 2 etc.
- Obtaining permission for use of illustrations and photographs is the responsibility of the author.
- Tables – Provide a caption for tables including any sources. Tables should be referred to in the text as ‘in Table 2’ rather than ‘in the following table’.
CITATIONS AND REFERENCING
In text citations – All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the list of references at the end of the paper. All literature (primary texts) referred to must appear in a separate bibliography.
|In text citations||Examples|
|In text citations follow the author-date method, showing the author’s last name and the year of publication for the source.||(Pantaleo, 2007) …
Pantaleo (2007) states that …
|Short direct quotes, ‘in single quotation marks’ include author, year of publication, and page number.||… Ghosn refers to literature functioning ‘as a change agent’ (2002, p. 173).|
|Longer direct quotations that are more than 40 words should be in a freestanding block, indented left and right 1 cm, with no quotation marks. Spelling and punctuation of the original should be copied exactly.
||… your sentence introducing the quotation:
blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa (Author, 2010, p. 234)
|A work by two authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work.||Research by Arizpe and Styles (2003) suggests …
(Arizpe & Styles, 2003)
|A work by three to five authors: List all the authors in the first in-text reference. Any further references to the authors will use the first author’s last name followed by ‘et al’.||First citation – (Brewster, Ellis & Girard, 2002)
Subsequent citation – (Brewster et al., 2002)
|Two or more works in the same parentheses: When a citation includes two or more works, order them alphabetically.||(Hall, 2005; Paran, 2006).|
|Authors with the same last name: To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names.||(N. Ellis, 2003; R. Ellis, 1995)|
|References to picturebook pages (1)
Picturebook pages are unpaginated, cite author (and illustrator), publication date and ‘unpaginated’.
|(Browne, 2010, unpaginated)
(Donaldson & Scheffler, 2002, unpaginated)
|References to picturebook pages (2)
‘Double-page spread’ and ‘opening’, as well as ‘verso’ and ‘recto’ can be used to clarify pages in picturebooks
|(Gravett, 2011, third opening)
The third opening is a double-page spread: the recto shows an uncomfortable looking wolf in a large red bow…
List all sources you have cited in your paper. First the bibliography containing any cited literature, second a list of references. These are guidelines for special cases:
|Multiple articles by the same author: list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.||Hunt, P. (1996).Hunt, P. (2001).|
|Same author(s), same year: order alphabetically by first word of the title (excluding a, an, or the), and add a lowercase a, b, etc., to the year.||Sipe, L. (2008a). Storytime: …
Sipe, L. (2008b). Young Children’s …
|When an author appears both as a sole author and, in another citation, as the first author of a group, list the one-author entries first.||Nodelman, P. (1988).
Nodelman, P. & Reimer, M. (2003).
|Basic format for books: Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of Work: Capital Letters also for Subtitle. Location: Publisher.||Appleyard, J. (1990). Becoming a Reader: The Experience of Fiction from Childhood to Adulthood. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.|
|Edited volume: Author, A. A. (Ed.). (Year of publication). Title of Work: Capital Letters also for Subtitle. Location: Publisher.||Kress, G. & van Leeuwen, T. (Eds.). (2006). Reading Images: the Grammar of Visual Design (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.|
|Article or chapter in an edited book:
Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of essays or chapters in edited volumes.
|Hughes, P. (1998). Exploring visual literacy across the curriculum. In J. Evans (Ed.), What’s in the Picture? London: Paul Chapman Publishing, pp. 115-131.|
|Basic format for picturebooks and illustrated books:
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of Work. A. A. Illustrator (Illus.). Location: Publisher.
|Rosen, M. (1993). We’re Going on a Bear Hunt. H. Oxenbury (Illus.). London: Walker Books.|
|Punctuation and capitalization: Maintain the punctuation and capitalization that is used by the journal in its title and capitalize all major words in journal titles. Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of the articles.||Delanoy, W. (2005). A dialogic model for literature teaching. ABAC Journal, 25 (1), 53-66.
Kramsch, C. & Sullivan P. (1996). Appropriate pedagogy. ELT Journal, 50 (3), 199-212.
|Present the journal title in full.||Children’s Literature in English Language Education Journal (not CLELEjournal)|
|Basic format for articles in periodicals
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. doi:http://dx.doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyyy
|Cook, G. (1997). Language play, language learning. ELT Journal, 51 (3), 224-31.
Krashen, S. (2007). Extensive reading in English as a foreign language by adolescents and young adults: A meta-analysis. International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 3 (2), 23-9.
|Article in a magazine||Grey, M. (2006). Boston Globe–Horn Book Award acceptance speech. The Horn Book Magazine, January/February, 17-20|
|Article from an online periodical||Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Online Periodical, volume number (issue number if available). Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/|
|Article from an online periodical with DOI assigned||Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range. doi:0000000/000000000000 or http://dx.doi.org/10.0000/0000|
|Article from an online periodical with no DOI assigned||Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number. Retrieved from http://www.journalhomepage.com/full/url/|
Referencing other sources
|Dissertation, unpublished||Lastname, F. N. (Year). Title of dissertation. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Name of Institution, Location.|
|Conference proceedings||Lastname, F. N. (Ed.), (Year). Book of proceedings from Name of Conference. Title of work. Location: Publisher.|
|Article from a database||Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/|
|Newspaper article||Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of article. Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/|
|Chapter/Section of a web document or online book chapter||Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. In Title of Book or Larger Document (chapter or section number). Retrieved from http://www.someaddress.com/full/url/|
|Motion picture||Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of Motion Picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor.|