Style Guide

Please download our style guide here.

  • The submission must be 1 ½ spaced, Times New Roman and 12pt.
  • Quotation marks – Use single quotes ‘single quotes’, and “double quotes” within single quotes when necessary.
  • SpellingSpelling should conform to the new edition of the Concise Oxford English Dictionary. Note the spelling of the following words, which are the preferred forms:
    • picturebook (not picture book or picture-book)
    • focuses, focused, focusing (not focusses, etc.)
    • sociocultural (no hyphen)
    • website (no hyphen)
    • internet (capital letter not necessary)
    • among, while (not amongst, whilst)
    • with regard to (not with regards to)
    • first, secondly, or first, second (but not firstly)
    • Muslim (not Moslem)
    • acknowledgement, judgement, abridgement
    • ‘ize’ rather than ‘ise’. Use ‘ize’ endings, e.g. organize, realize, but advertise, advise, comprise, compromise, despise, disguise, enterprise, exercise, improvise, supervise, surmise, surprise, analyse etc. Please check in the dictionary if necessary.
  • HyphensIn adjectives but not nouns: twentieth-century literature but the twentieth century.
  • ItalicsUse italic type for titles of books, plays, films, long poems, newspapers, journals (but not for articles in journals). The title of an article or short poem should be in single quotation marks.
  • Abbreviations
    • Abbreviations should be defined at first mention and used consistently throughout the paper, even those considered common in English language teaching.
    • ‘for example’ should be used in the text and ‘e.g.’ in lists of tables/figures.
    • ‘per cent’ as two words and % in tables/figures.
    • Full stops should be used after abbreviations (p., Ch.) but not after contractions or in acronyms: Dr, St, Mr, BBC, UNESCO, UK, USA.
    • Do not use ‘ibid’.
  • Numbers
    • Write in full numbers under 10. Use numerals for measurements, percentages and ages e.g. 24 per cent; 10 years old.
    • Insert a comma for thousands and tens of thousands, e.g. 1,000 and 10,000.
  • He / she – Avoid the use of ‘he’ (when he or she is meant) wherever possible, either through the use of ‘they’ or by repeating the noun.
  • Notes – Restrict notes to explanatory statements that develop an idea or expand a quotation, where to do so in the text would disturb the balance. Place notes at the end of your chapter. Do not use footnotes. Note numbers should appear as superscript numbers in the text and be numbered sequentially. Notes should always be 1 ½ spaced and the same point size (12pt) as the main text.
  • Figures and Photographs
    • All illustrations and images should be submitted correctly PLACED WITHIN THE TEXT. It is not necessary to send pictures separately. Always refer to the image you are using in your text, e.g. (see Figure 3).
    • Please ensure that each image has a caption, and each illustration is clearly marked as Figure 1, Figure 2 etc.
    • Obtaining permission for use of illustrations and photographs is the responsibility of the author.
  • Tables – Provide a caption for tables including any sources. Tables should be referred to in the text as ‘in Table 2’ rather than ‘in the following table’.


All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the list of references at the end of the paper. All literary texts referred to must appear in a separate bibliography (see Info for Authors). From 2021, Children’s Literature in English Language Education will use APA 7. Please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th edition for full details. A useful guide on short and long in-text citations and the reference list can also be found at 

Please note that the title of this journal must be cited in full in the reference list: Children’s Literature in English Language Education (not CLELEjournal).

Please refer to this recent article as an example of how to cite journal articles, monographs, edited volumes, an unpublished thesis, DOIs and websites etc. Please scroll to the end of the article to see how we differentiate Bibliography and References. Make sure to also check our Info for Authors!


Some examples of in-text citations:

In-text citations Examples
In-text citations follow the author-date method, showing the author’s last name and the year of publication for the source. (Pantaleo, 2007) …
Pantaleo (2007) states that …
Short direct quotes‘in single quotation marks’ include author, year of publication, and page number. … Ghosn refers to literature functioning ‘as a change agent’ (2002, p. 173).
Longer direct quotations that are more than 40 words should be in a freestanding block, indented left and right 1 cm, with no quotation marks. Spelling and punctuation of the original should be copied exactly.
… your sentence introducing the quotation:
blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa blaa  (Author, 2010, p. 234)
A work by two authors: Name both authors in the signal phrase or in the parentheses each time you cite the work. Research by Arizpe and Styles (2003) suggests …
(Arizpe & Styles, 2003)
A work by three to five authors: List all the authors in the first in-text reference. Any further references to the authors will use the first author’s last name followed by ‘et al.’. First citation – (Brewster, Ellis & Girard, 2002)
Subsequent citation – (Brewster et al., 2002)
Two or more works in the same parentheses: When a citation includes two or more works, order them alphabetically. (Hall, 2005; Paran, 2006).
Authors with the same last name: To prevent confusion, use first initials with the last names. (N. Ellis, 2003; R. Ellis, 1995)
References to picturebook pages (1)
Picturebook pages are unpaginated, cite author (and illustrator), publication date and ‘unpaginated’.
(Browne, 2010, unpaginated)
(Donaldson & Scheffler, 2002, unpaginated)
References to picturebook pages (2)
‘Double-page spread’ and ‘opening’, as well as ‘verso’ and ‘recto’ can be used to clarify pages in picturebooks
(Gravett, 2011, third opening)
The third opening is a double-page spread: the recto shows an uncomfortable looking wolf in a large red bow…